DICTIONARY 0 - 9
|17 November Group (17N)||
17 November Group was a Greek far-left militant organisation formed in 1975. It was led by Alexandros Giotopoulos and conducted an extensive urban guerrilla campaign against the Greek state, banks, and businesses, as well as American, Turkish, and British targets. The organisation committed 103 known armed robbery, assassination, and bombing attacks, during which 23 people were killed. 17N was designated a terrorist group by Greece, the United Kingdom, Turkey, the United States, and disbanded in 2002 after the arrest and trial of many of its members.
The group's name, 17N, refers to the final day of the 1973 Athens Polytechnic uprising in which a protest against the Greek Military Junta (1967 - 1974), also known as the Regime of the Colonels, took place. The uprising was bloodily suppressed by the army. In addition to assassinations, kidnappings, and symbolic attacks on corporate and government offices, 17N supported its operations with at least 11 bank robberies, netting approximately US $3.5 million. Members of 17N kept detailed financial records, found in one of their safe houses in 2002, documenting the fact that the stolen money was used for revolutionary purposes.
There are four traditional ceremonial tools (magical weapons) associated with Ritual Magick, Wicca, and related traditions, which are believed to derive from the Four Hallows (four holies) of the Arthurian Romances, in which the items are used as symbols of metaphysical ideas. In turn, these are derived from early esoteric and Gnostic Christian ideas.
These tools represent (in magick) the four classical elements, the four directions, and the four archangels. They comprise the four suits in a pack of Tarot cards and their descendants (playing cards), and the four worlds of creation outlined in the Kabbalah. They correspond with the four syllables of the Tetragrammaton, the sacred four letter name of God.
In some traditions, there are complex and exacting methods by which the tools are acquired and consecrated for ritual use. For example, the sword and the spear are weapons of destruction which symbolise archetypal male passion, power and dominance -- aggression, which properly channelled, propels human endeavour. They are a compulsive, ever moving force. The dark, primitive expression of this force is destruction, violence, frustration, and ill will.
The feminine suits, cups, pentacles or patens, are symbols of 'feminine' traits -- receptive, nurturing, and welcoming when correctly used; cruel, lazy, and cold when abused.
The masculine power seeks knowledge and progress, the feminine provides restraining wisdom, guidance, and grounding. Where the masculine moves and expands, the feminine forms, shapes, and channels.
|4 Leaf Clover||See Four-leaf Clover.|
|7 Society||See Seven Society.|
The 969 Movement, a Burmese/Myanmar nationalist organisation opposed to the Islamic expansion in predominantly Buddhist Burma, is thought to have been founded in 1999. The three digits composing the number ‘969’ symbolise (a) the virtues of the Buddha, (b) Buddhist practices and (c) the Buddhist community -- the first 9 represents the nine special attributes of the Lord Buddha, the 6 stands for the six special attributes of his Dharma, (Buddhist Teachings), and the final 9 characterises the nine special attributes of Buddhist Sangha (monastic community). Those special attributes are the 'Three Jewels of the Buddha'.
Its teachings are rooted in a traditional belief in numerology. Across South Asia, Muslims represent the phrase ‘In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate and Merciful’ with the number 786, and businesses display this number to indicate that they are owned by Muslims. 969's supporters apparently view this as a Muslim plot to conquer Burma in the 21st century, based purely on the premise that 7 plus 8 plus 6 equates to 21. The number 969 is intended to be the cosmological opposite of 786.
Various media organisations have described the movement as being anti-Muslim or Islamophobic, but its Buddhist supporters deny this, with the ordained nationalist Burmese Buddhist monk Bhikkhu Ashin Wirathu (born 1968), the movement's leader, stating it is a protective movement concerned with targeting Bengalis who are terrorising ethnic Rakhine (Buddhists). Wirathu is regarded as 969's highest protector, of whom it has been reported that he advocates the boycott of shops owned by Muslims; despite this Wirathu has stated that the movement has been treated as a scapegoat by being unfairly blamed for events like the 2012 Rakhine State riots (a series of conflicts primarily between ethnic Rakhine Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims in northern Rakhine State, Myanmar, and maintains that, "969 is not violent."
The Asia Times Online, a Hong Kong based English language news website, has described him as a 'complex figure who demonises Muslims, but also protests police violence'. The Straits Times (an English-language daily broadsheet newspaper based in Singapore) reported that 'Bhikkhu Wirathu responded to recent anti-Muslim violence with pledges to work for peace', although critics remain sceptical.
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