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Earth Earth is one of the four classical elements in ancient Greek philosophy and science.  In Alchemy, Earth was believed to be primarily dry, and secondarily cold, (as per Aristotle). Beyond those classical attributes, the chemical substance Salt, was associated with Earth whose alchemical symbol is a downward-pointing triangle, bisected by a horizontal line.  In astrology, Earth relates to the astrological signs Capricorn, Taurus and Virgo.

Earth as a planetary symbol is depicted as a globe bisected by meridian lines into four quarters.  It was commonly associated with qualities of heaviness, matter and the terrestrial world.  Due to the hero cults, and chthonic1 Underworld deities, the element of Earth is also associated with the sensual aspects of both life and death in later occultism.

The first Greek god was actually a goddess, Gaia, or Mother Earth, who created herself out of primordial chaos.  From her fertile womb all life sprang, and unto Mother Earth all living things must return after their allotted span of life is over.  Gaia, as Mother Nature, personifies the entire ecosystem of Planet Earth.  Mother Nature is always working to achieve and maintain harmony, wholeness and balance within the environment.  She heals, nurtures and supports all life on this planet, and ultimately all life and health depend on Her.  In time, Nature heals all ills.  In Classical Greek and Roman myth, various goddesses represented the Earth, seasons, crops and fertility, including Demeter, Persephone and Ceres.

Earth and the other Greek classical elements were incorporated into the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn system of Ceremonial Magic.  Zelator is the elemental grade attributed to Earth; this grade is also attributed to the Kabbalistic sphere Malkuth.  The elemental weapon of Earth is the Pentacle.  Each of the elements has several associated spiritual beings.  The archangel of Earth is Uriel, the angel is Phorlakh, the ruler is Kerub, the king is Ghob, and the Earth elementals are called Gnomes.

Earth is considered to be passive and is referred to the lower left point of the Pentagram in the Supreme Invoking Ritual of the Pentagram.  Many of these associations have since spread throughout the occult community. See also Gnomes and Quarters.

1 The Gods of the Underworld were named 'Theoi Khthonioi' or Chthonian Gods by the Greeks.  They were ruled by the grim god Hades and his queen Persephone.  The term 'Chthonic Gods' was also used for the closely related gods of agriculture.

Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica See Ordo Templi Orientis.

Elder Futhark See Runes.

Elven Star There is considerable meaning behind the Septagram or seven-pointed star known as the Elven Star or Faerie Star.  For its followers (known as Fae), it represents a belief in fairies, and is used as a band symbol to signify their belief.

Each point of the star has a meaning, and stories about those meanings vary depending upon the storyteller.  Seven has long been a 'magical' or 'lucky' number, which is possibly why so many feel comfortable with the Elven Star if only for its seven points.  There are seven wonders of the ancient world, seven visible colours in a rainbow, seven notes to a musical scale (do, re, mi, fa, so, la, ti), seven levels of heaven, and the eternal city is supposedly built on seven hills.

Additionally, there are seven Chakras, or energy centres in the body, and seven days of the week.  Seven represents universal balance.  This is illustrated by the symbol for Earth, a circle with four segments, combined with the Trinity, representing heaven.  These are bound together in harmony, forming a seven-pointed star.  In an Elven Star, this balance is symbolised by three over four, or heaven over earth.

For some, the points represent the seven directions: north, south, east, west, above, below, and within.  For others, it's the seven magical elements: Earth, Air, Fire, Water, life, light, & magic.  Still others say it's inner and outer elements.

ELN Colombia See National Liberation Army (Colombia).

English Defence League (EDL) The English Defence League (EDL) is a far-right street protest movement which focuses on opposition to what it considers to be a spread of Islamism and Sharia in the United Kingdom (UK).  It describes itself as an anti-racist and human rights organisation.  The ideology behind the EDL was the belief that the religion of Islam ‘challenges an English, Christian way of life’.  The EDL has been described as Islamophobic and was until 2013 ‘the most significant counter-jihad movement in Europe’ and considered by some academics to be one of the more intriguing developments on the far right.

The EDL was born from a group known as the ‘United Peoples of Luton’ (UPL).  The UPL had been formed in response to a demonstration organised by the extremist Islamist organisation, Al-Muhajiroun (a banned terrorist Salafi jihadist organisation based in the UK linked to international terrorism, homophobia, and anti-Semitism), against the war in Afghanistan, held in March 2009.  This demonstration took place as the Royal Anglian Regiment marched through Luton following a tour of duty in the Helmand province campaign.  When the Luton counter-demonstration led to arrests, a BBC News report said local football supporters 'decided something should be done' and found common cause with other 'soccer casuals' and 'firms' associated with major clubs.  The conversation concluded that Islamic extremism was a national problem and they had to put aside club rivalries.

EDL's original leader, Stephen Yaxley-Lennon, known as Tommy Robinson (born 1982), recalled that he had been prompted to found the organisation after he had read in a newspaper about a group of local Islamists attempting to recruit men outside a local bakery in Luton to fight for the Taliban in Afghanistan: "I was like, they can't do that!  In working class communities, we all know somebody in the armed forces.  I've got a mate who lost his legs.  And these lot were sending people to kill our boys.”

In October 2013 Tommy Robinson and Kevin Carroll, a co-founder of the EDL, left the group with Robinson citing concerns over the ‘dangers of far-right extremism’.  He was replaced as leader by Tim Ablitt.

Enneagram / nonogram An enneagram is a nine pointed star composed of three overlapping triangles, whereas a nonogram is any nine-pointed polygon.  In esoteric Kabbalistic doctrine, it represents the sphere of Yesod, the Moon, dreams and illusions.  The enneagram is a well-known emblem of the Baha'i faith, symbolising the value of the word baha, ‘glory’.

Another type of enneagram, a nine pointed glyph, was devised by the esoteric philosopher Gurdjieff, a mystic, philosopher, spiritual teacher, and composer of Armenian and Greek descent, born in Alexandrapola. The emblem's unusual shape is constructed by mapping the sequence of musical octaves, and has come to represent Gurdjieff's 'Fourth Way Society' and its philosophies.

Gurdjieff's enneagram is likely based on the Kabbalistic tree of life, and accordingly, is said to represent the underlying geometry of the universe.

Enochian Script Enochian script is a magical language which the philosopher and mathematician, John Dee (1527 - 1608 or 1609 CE), reportedly received from Angelic messengers through the medium Edward Kelley (1555 - 1597) in the late 16th century.  Dee noted in his diaries that the letters represented the order of man's creation.  Although Dee himself referred to the alphabet as 'Adamic', it was eventually named after the Biblical prophet 'Enoch'.

This Script was the basis for a rudimentary theurgical system begun by Dee but never completed.  It eventually became the basis of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn's magical system, but was banned by Paul Foster Case (1884 - 1954) of Builders of the Adytum after his expulsion from the Golden Dawn due to his belief in the inherent danger of the system.  There are twenty-one letters in the Enochian alphabet, some of them representing several sounds, including some overlap.  As in Hebrew and other angelic alphabets, the language is written from right to left.

Enochian Watchtowers See Quarters.

Eretz Yisrael Shelanu Eretz Yisrael Shelanu (Our Land of Israel) is a far-right religious party in Israel founded by Chabad Rabbi Shalom Dov Wolpo (also Sholom Ber Wolpe) and Baruch Marzel on 11 November 2008.  It seeks to prevent both the creation of a Palestinian state as well as the dismantling of Israeli settlements in the West Bank.

In 2008, in anticipation of the 2009 Knesset elections, Wolpe and his party merged with Baruch Marzel's Jewish National Front.  The Knesset list was topped by Wolpe, Marzel, and Israeli musician Ariel Zilber.  In the weeks prior to the election, the joint list agreed to run as part of the National Union list, with Michael Ben-Ari, its representative, taking the 4th spot on the alliance's list.  The Union won four seats, allowing Ben-Ari to enter the Knesset.

On 27 October 2010, violence broke out at the town of Umm al-Fahm between Eretz Yisrael Shelanu marchers and Arab counter-protesters.

In 2012, Ben-Ari and Aryeh Eldad of Hatikva, another member party of the National Union, announced their decision to leave the alliance and form Otzma LeYisrael.  Ben-Ari left Eretz Yisrael Shelanu, and formed Otzma Yehudit, and leading up to the 2013 Knesset elections, party leader Rabbi Shalom Dov Wolpo announced his support of HaBayit HaYehudi.  Subsequently, leading Haredi rabbis Ya'akov Yosef and David Meir Drukman announced cessation of support of Eretz Yisrael Shelanu.

Eros In Greek mythology, Eros is the god of love.  His Roman counterpart is Cupid (desire).  Normally, he is described as one of the children of Aphrodite and Ares, and along with most of his siblings, was a part of group, consisting of winged love gods.  However, sometimes he is also described as one of the primordial gods, but then, he is most often identified with Phanes.

Eros appears in ancient Greek sources under several different guises.  In the earliest sources (the cosmogonies, the earliest philosophers, and texts referring to the mystery religions), he is one of the primordial gods involved in the coming into being of the cosmos.  But in later sources, Eros is represented as the son of Aphrodite, whose mischievous interventions in the affairs of gods and mortals cause bonds of love to form, often illicitly.  Ultimately, in the later satirical poets, he is represented as a blindfolded child, the precursor to the chubby Renaissance Cupid, whereas in early Greek poetry and art, Eros was depicted as an adult male who embodies sexual power, and a profound artist.

Erzulie Dantor See Veves.

Erzulie Freda See Veves.

Estonian Mythology Estonian Mythology is a composite of myths belonging to the Estonian folk heritage and literary mythology.  Information concerning the pre-Christian and mediaeval Estonian mythology is scattered in historical chronicles and travellers' accounts as well as ecclesiastical registers.  Systematic recordings of Estonian folklore started in the 19th century CE.

Pre-Christian Estonian deities included a sky god known as Jumal or Taevataat ('Old man of the sky') in Estonian, corresponding to Jumala in Finnish, and Jumo in Mari.

Ether See Aether.

European Kindred (EK) The European Kindred or EK is a white supremacist prison and street gang that began in the Oregon prison system.  It is affiliated with the Aryan Brotherhood and the Ku Klux Klan.  Its allies are Nazi Lowriders and Volksfront, while its main rivals are the American Mafia, the Bloods, the Crips, the Israeli mafia and the Russian Mafia.

Parole and probation officers report the gang may have swelled from a handful of members less than a decade ago to around 350 now.  EK members have a propensity for violence and are one of the most powerful gangs within the Oregon Department of Corrections.

The group was founded in 1998 by David Patrick Kennedy and another inmate of Eastern Oregon's Snake River Correctional Institution.  Membership in the EK is nearly exclusively male, and membership is restricted to those with no more than one-sixteenth Native American ancestry.  The group has a formal structure, rules, and ritual.  It is highly secretive.

The gang has a reputation for extortion, assaults, moving contraband goods throughout the Oregon correctional institutions, and dog fighting.  New members are encouraged to "earn their bones" (their membership) through hostile action consistent with the group's cause.

There is no documented information indicating EK members attack prison guards.  On the street EK members appear to be involved in the distribution and possibly manufacture of methamphetamine.

EK members mark their membership with the initials EK in a shield on their right calf or on other parts of their bodies.  Women are associated with the group, but are marked with the initials FW.  The initial F stands for "feather", prison slang for female, and W stands for "wood", prison slang for a Caucasian.

On August 10, 2016, European Kindred member Russell Courtier, 38, egged on by his girlfriend Colleen Hunt, 35, used his 1991 Jeep Wrangler to run over 19-year-old African-American Larnell Malik Bruce.  This incident occurred after Larnell propelled Russell's head into a window causing a concussion.  Larnell Bruce then walked off after the encounter at Gresham, Oregon 7-11.  Security cameras showed the teen attempting to avoid the jeep and escape before being hit.  The police arrived after receiving a call from an employee of the 7-11 about the incident and found the teen bleeding, critically injured and lying in the street.  Trials were eventually completed in March of 2019.  On March 13th, Hunt pled guilty to manslaughter.  Six days later, Courtier was convicted of murder and hate crime.

European Union (EU) The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 28-member states located primarily in Europe.  It has an area of 4,475,757 square kilometres (1,728,099 square miles), and an estimated population of over 510 million.  The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states.  EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries, and regional development.  Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished.  A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 -- it is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency.

For further details visit the official website of the EU at https://europa.eu/european-union/index_en.

Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) is a formerly armed leftist nationalist and separatist organisation from the Basque Country in northern Spain and southwestern France.  It was founded in 1959 CE and evolved from a group promoting traditional Basque culture to a paramilitary group engaging in a violent campaign of bombings, assassinations and kidnappings throughout Spain.  Its aim was to gain independence for the region known as the ‘Basque Country’.

Between 1968 and 2010, ETA is reputed to have killed more than 800 people (including civilians) and injured thousands more.  Internationally, ETA is classified as a terrorist group with more than 300 members imprisoned in Spain, France, and other countries.

ETA declared several ceasefires between 1989 and 2010, then on 20 October 2011 it announced a 'definitive cessation of its armed activity'.  On 24 November 2012, it was reported that the group was ready to negotiate a ‘definitive end’ to its operations and disband completely.  Finally, on 7 April 2017, it announced that it had ceded all its weapons and explosives and would be officially a disarmed organisation.

Evil Eye The evil eye is a curse thought to be cast by a malevolent glare, which is usually given to a person when they are unaware of it.  Many cultures believe that receiving the evil eye will cause misfortune or injury, so have created talismans to protect against it -- these are also called 'evil eyes'.

The idea expressed by the term causes many different cultures to pursue protective measures against it, the concept and its significance varying widely among those cultures, primarily in Western Asia.  The idea appears several times in Rabbinic literature, and was a widely extended belief among many Mediterranean and Asian tribes and cultures.

Charms and decorations with eye-like symbols known as Nazars, used to repel the evil eye, are a common sight across Armenia, Albania, Turkey, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Morocco, Greece, the Levant, Afghanistan, Syria, Southern Spain, and Mexico, and have become a popular choice of souvenir with tourists.  See also Nazar.

Eye of Horus / Ra Designed to resemble the eye of a falcon, this symbol is called the 'Eye of Horus' or 'Eye of Ra' and represents the right eye of the Egyptian falcon god Horus.  As the Udjat (utchat) it was associated with the Sun god Ra/Ré.  The mirror image, or left eye, represented the Moon, and the god Tehuti or Thoth.  A very similar concept of the Sun and Moon as eyes appears in many religious traditions, such as the Celtic tale of the 'Hand of Nuada'.

According to legend, the eye was torn from Horus by his murderous uncle Set, and restored by Thoth, the god of magic.  After the restoration, some stories state that Horus made a gift of the eye to Osiris, which allowed this solar deity to rule the Underworld.  The story of this injury is probably an allusion to the phases of the Moon as the eye which is torn out every month.  Together, the eyes represent the complete universe, a concept similar to that of the Yin yang symbol of Taoism.

Spiritually, the right eye reflects solar, masculine energy, as well as reason and mathematics, whereas the left eye reflects fluid, feminine, lunar energy, and rules intuition and magic.  Together, they represent the combined, transcendent power of Horus.

The Eye of Horus was believed to have healing and protective power.  It was used as a protective amulet, and as a medical measuring device, using the mathematical proportions of the eye to determine the proportions of ingredients in preparations for medications.  The Masonic All-seeing Eye, or Eye of Providence symbol found on American money, and our modern 'Rx' pharmaceutical symbol are all descended from the Eye of Horus.

Eye of Providence See All-seeing Eye.

Eyes of the Buddha This symbol is also referred to as the 'Wisdom Eyes of Buddha' (Bodhnath temple eyes).  Often found painted on the Stupas of Tibetan Buddhism, it represents the 'all-seeing eyes of the Buddha', a symbol of the omnipresent compassion of the Bodhisattvas.

The small dot depicted between the eyes represents a third eye, a symbol of spiritual awakening.  The curious squiggle between the eyes is the Sanskrit numeral one, symbolising the unity of all things.

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