DICTIONARY - F
The Fabian Society was founded in London, England on 4 January 1884 as an offshoot of The Fellowship of the New Life, a society founded a year earlier. Early Fellowship members included the visionary Victorian elite who wanted to transform society by setting an example of clean simplified living for others to follow. Some members also wanted to become politically involved to aid society's transformation, so they set up a separate society, the Fabian Society, a British socialist organisation whose purpose is to advance the principles of democratic socialism via gradualist and reformist effort in democracies, rather than by revolutionary overthrow. All members were free to attend both societies. The Fabian Society additionally advocated renewal of Western European Renaissance ideas and their promulgation throughout the world.
The Fellowship of the New Life was dissolved in 1899, but the Fabian Society grew to become the pre-eminent academic society in the United Kingdom in the Edwardian era. Public meetings of the society were originally held at Essex Hall, a popular location just off the Strand in central London.
According to the author Jon B. Perdue, "The logo of the Fabian Society, a tortoise, represented the group’s predilection for a slow, imperceptible transition to socialism, while its coat of arms, a 'wolf in sheep’s clothing', represented its preferred methodology for achieving its goal." The wolf in sheep's clothing symbolism was later abandoned, due to its obvious negative connotations.
Its nine founding members were Frank Podmore, Edward R. Pease, William Clarke, Hubert Bland, Percival Chubb, Frederick Keddell, H. H. Champion, Edith Nesbit, and Rosamund Dale Owen. Havelock Ellis is sometimes mentioned as a tenth founding member but there is some question about this.
As one of the founding organisations of the Labour Representation Committee in 1900, and as an important influence upon the Labour Party which grew from it, the Fabian Society has had a powerful influence on British politics. Other members of the Fabian Society have included political leaders from countries formerly part of the British Empire, such as Jawaharlal Nehru, who adopted Fabian principles, as part of their own political ideologies. The Fabian Society founded the London School of Economics and Political Science in 1895.
Today, the society functions primarily as a think tank and is one of 15 socialist societies affiliated with the Labour Party. Similar societies exist in Australia (the Australian Fabian Society), in Canada (the Douglas–Coldwell Foundation and the now disbanded League for Social Reconstruction), in Sicily (Sicilian Fabian Society) and in New Zealand (The NZ Fabian Society).
|Faerie Star||See Elven Star.|
|Faravahar / Asho Farohar||See Zoroastrianism.|
The word 'fasces' is derived from the Roman word meaning 'bundle'. The fasces itself is an axe or pointed weapon surrounded by bundled rods of wood -- usually elm. Its original use and true meaning is lost, although it probably originated as a phallic emblem.
In ancient Rome the fasces was once a symbol of authority, most often associated with magistrates. Bundles of rods without a weapon were called bacilli, the emblem of the duumviri (magistrates without the power to pass a sentence of death). It is thought that the bundled rods represented the unified people while the axe stood for authority and power, especially over death.
The fasces frequently denoted a symbol of government, unity, and order, and has remained a popular heraldic emblem. It was even adopted as an emblem by Benito Mussolini's1 (1883 - 1945) Fascist party during WWII, and is the origin of the word 'fascist'. Today it is more likely to be used by neo-fascist groups than normative governments.
On early American coins and other symbols, the fasces symbolised the unity of the colonies -- strength in numbers (a single stick may be broken, but a number of sticks bound together are invincible).
1 Italian dictator Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (1883-1945) rose to power in the wake of World War I as a leading proponent of Fascism. Originally a revolutionary Socialist, he forged the paramilitary Fascist movement in 1919 and became prime minister in 1922. Known as Il Duce (the leader) Mussolini's military expenditures in Libya, Somalia, Ethiopia and Albania made Italy predominant in the Mediterranean region, though they exhausted his armed forces by the late 1930s. Mussolini allied himself with Hitler, relying on the German dictator to prop up his leadership during World War II, but he was killed shortly after the German surrender in Italy in 1945.
|Fascism & Freedom Movement||
Movimento Fascismo e Libertà - Partito Socialista Nazionale, MFL–PSN), called simply Fascism and Freedom Movement, is an Italian fascist political party. It was founded in 1989 as a political movement inside the Italian Social Movement, referring to Senator Giorgio Pisano and his weekly magazine Candido. In 2009, it added the words National Socialist Party (Partito Socialista Nazionale (PSN)) to its original name. The movement has been sued several times for alleged reconstitution of the dissolved National Fascist Party. It is the only recognised party in Italy with the inscription ‘Fascismo’ on its logo.
The Fascism and Freedom Movement always remained aloof from the area of so-called neo-fascist parties and refuses agreements and/or alliances, stressing categorically it is not to be classified as a right-wing party. The party makes explicit reference to the ideals of the Italian Social Republic as corporatism, the socialisation of the economy, taxation and monetary nationalism. Their ideology is based entirely on the thought of the fascist leader Benito Mussolini (1883 - 1945) and has as its main objective the realisation of Mussolini's strongly hierarchical corporate democracy based on social credit. The party is also in favour of a presidential republic and expresses a strong sense of anti-Americanism and anti-Zionism.
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Faunus was the Horned God of the forest, plains and fields. He was one of the oldest Roman deities, known as the 'di indigetes'2. According to the epic poet Virgil, he was a legendary king of the Latins who came with his people from Arcadia.
His shade was consulted as a god of prophecy under the name of Fatuus, with oracles in the sacred grove of Tibur, around the well Albunea, and on the Aventine Hill in ancient Rome itself. Marcus Terentius Varro asserted that the oracular responses were given in Saturnian verse. Faunus revealed the future in dreams and voices that were communicated to those who came to sleep in his precincts, lying on the fleeces of sacrificed lambs.
With the increasing Hellenisation of literate upper class Roman culture in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE, the Romans tried to equate their own deities with those of the Greeks, so Faunus was naturally equated with the god Pan, a pastoral god of shepherds who was said to reside in Arcadia.
Pan had always been depicted with horns, so because of this many depictions of Faunus also began to display this trait. However, the two deities were also considered separate by many -- in particular Virgil, in his Aeneid, made mention of both Faunus and Pan independently.
2 In Georg Wissowa's terminology, the di indigetes or indigites were Roman deities not adopted from other religions.
|Fede Ring||See Claddagh.|
|Federation of Damanhur||See Damanhur.|
|Fellowship of Isis||
The Fellowship of Isis (FOI) was founded at the Vernal Equinox of 1976 CE at Huntington Castle (also known as Clonegal Castle), Co. Carlow, Republic of Ireland. There were three co-founders, Olivia Robertson (1917 - 2013), her brother, Lawrence Durdin-Robertson (1920 - 1994) and Lawrence's wife Pamela (1923 - 1987) whose aim was to create a Fellowship to ‘help the Goddess actively in the manifestation of Her divine plan’. Olivia described Isis as ‘God in female form’.
The fellowship developed from a working group created in 1963 called the Huntington Castle Centre for Meditation and Study. This Centre was active in gathering together various occult and theological figures such as Ross Nichols, Josephine and Mohun Lall, and Gerald Gough. The experiences shared within this group led to the eventual founding of the Fellowship of Isis after which the group steadily grew until the early 1990s. It is now a globally organised religion whose international and internet presence is very large in comparison with its Irish base.
In August 1993, the FOI was represented at the Parliament of the World's Religions at Chicago by Olivia Robertson and other member delegates. It was the first time that the Religion of the Goddess had been acknowledged as a world faith at this Parliament. The Parliament became a showcase for the new religions in America, especially since mainstream Christianity was much under represented.
Custodianship of the FOI Foundation Centre is now under the aegis of the Durdin-Robertsons, heirs of the co-founders. In 2011, Olivia Robertson named her niece, Cressida Pryor, successor and FOI steward. In October 2014, Cressida announced the Irish-based Circle of Brigid the ‘central parliament’ and ‘executive board’ of the FOI Foundation Centre, of which she is overall adviser. The Circle of Brigid is also responsible for festivals at the Castle Centre in Ireland and has a sub-committee to deal with ethics grievances.
In Norse mythology, Fenrir (also known by many other names), is a monstrous wolf. Fenrir is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century CE from earlier traditional sources, and the Prose Edda and Heimskringla, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. In both the Poetic Edda and Prose Edda, Fenrir is the father of the wolves Sköll and Hati Hróðvitnisson, and a son of Loki. It was foretold he would kill the god Odin during the events of Ragnarök, but would in turn be killed by Odin's son Víðarr.
In the Prose Edda, additional information can be found concerning Fenrir, including that, due to the gods' knowledge of prophecies foretelling great trouble from Fenrir and his rapid growth, the gods bound him, as a result of which Fenrir bit off the right hand of the god Týr. Depictions of Fenrir have been identified on various objects, and scholarly theories have been proposed regarding Fenrir's relation to other canine beings in Norse mythology. Fenrir has been the subject of many artistic depictions, and he also appears in literature.
Finnish Mythology is a commonly applied description of the folklore of Finnish Paganism, of which a modern revival is practiced by a small percentage of the modern Finnish people. It has many features shared with fellow Estonian Mythology and its non-Finnish neighbours, the Balts and the Scandinavians. Some of their myths are also distantly related to the myths of other Finno-Ugric speakers like the Samis3. Finnish Mythology survived within an oral tradition of mythical poem-singing and folklore well into the 19th century CE.
Although the gradual influence of surrounding cultures raised the significance of the sky god in a monolatristic manner (the recognition of the existence of many gods, but with the consistent worship of only one), the father god 'Ukko' (Old Man) was originally just a nature spirit like all the others. Of the animals, the most sacred was the bear, whose real name was never uttered out loud lest his kind be unfavourable to the hunting. The bear was seen as the embodiment of the forefathers, and for this reason it was called by many circumlocutions: mesikämmen ('mead-paw'), otso ('browed one'), kontio ('dweller of the land'), metsän kultaomena ('the golden apple of the forest') but not a god.
3 The Sami people (also Sámi or Saami, traditionally known in English as Lapps or Laplanders) are an indigenous Finno-Ugric people inhabiting the Arctic area of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of far northern Norway, Sweden, Finland, and the Kola Peninsula of Russia.
Fire is one of the four classical elements in ancient Greek philosophy and Western alchemy. It represents divine energy, purification, revelation, transformation, regeneration, ambition, sexual passion -- in other words, a masculine element symbolising creative and destructive power.
This along with the other Greek classical elements were incorporated into the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn's system of magic. The elemental grade of Philosophus (4=7) is attributed to fire; this grade is also attributed to the Kabbalistic Sephirah Netzach and the planet Venus. The fire signs in astrology are Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius.
The elemental weapon of fire is the Wand. Each of the elements has several associated spiritual beings. The archangel of fire is Michael, the angel is Aral, the ruler is Seraph, the king is Djin, and the fire elementals are called Salamanders. Fire is considered to be active; it is represented in astrology by Leo and is referred to the lower right point of the Pentacle in the Supreme Invoking Ritual of the Pentacle. Many of these associations have since spread throughout the occult community. See also Salamanders.
|Five-fold Cross||See Jerusalem Cross.|
|Fleur-de-lis / Fleur-de-lys||
The fleur-de-lis/fleur-de-lys or flower-de-luce is a stylised lily that is used as a decorative design or symbol. Many of the saints are often depicted with a lily, most prominently St Joseph, the husband of Mary, the mother of Jesus.
Since France is a historically Catholic nation, the Fleur-de-lis became commonly used at one and the same time, 'religious, political, dynastic, artistic, emblematic, and symbolic', particularly in French heraldry.
For Britain is a far-right minor political party in the United Kingdom. Anne Marie Waters, an anti-Islam activist, founded the party in October 2017 after she was defeated in the (United Kingdom Independence Party’s (UKIP) leadership election in that year. She left UKIP and formed For Britain after she and her supporters were described as ‘Nazis and racists’ by the victor in the leadership election, Henry Bolton, and UKIP's former leader Nigel Farage. The name is taken from her UKIP leadership campaign slogan, ‘Anne Marie For Britain’. Waters said that the party would ‘speak to the forgotten people’.
On 9 March 2018, For Britain was registered with the Electoral Commission, a requirement for any political party wishing to put up candidates in elections and to solicit donations for campaigns, as ‘The For Britain Movement’. The party received the support of Tommy Robinson, former leader of the English Defence League. Its platform includes reducing Muslim immigration to the UK to near zero, and ‘bringing the entire EU project down’. The Times described the party as intending to fill the space left by the demise of the British National Party.
In November 2017, Paul Weston, leader of the far-right British nationalist political party 'Liberty GB', announced it would merge into For Britain, then in April 2018, the singer-songwriter Steven Patrick Morrissey, formerly the frontman of 'The Smiths', declared his support for Waters’ party.
For Britain fielded 15 candidates in the May 2018 English local elections, with not one being elected -- the party came last in almost all the seats it contested.
Forza Nuova (FN), meaning ‘New Force’, is an Italian far-right political party founded by Roberto Fiore and Massimo Morsello. The party is a member of the ‘Alliance for Peace and Freedom’ and was a part of the Social Alternative from 2003 to 2006 CE. FN has often been criticised for its radical position and for acts of violence involving some militants. It was also the protagonist of political campaigns opposed to same-sex marriage and immigration to Italy.
In 1980, Fiore and Morsello escaped to London as fugitives after arrest warrants aimed at shedding light on the facts of the massacre at the Bologna railway station, a terrorist bombing of the Central Station at Bologna, Italy, on 2 August 1980, which killed 85 people and wounded more than 200. The pair were not considered to be related to the massacre, although they belonged, according to the judiciary, to the Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari. They remained in England as political refugees for 20 years.
Forza Nuova was founded on 29 September 1997 at a meeting in the province of Lazio, organised by Francesco Pallottino, leader of a Nazi rock group. The national launch of the group was in Latina with a conference in April 1998 during the absence of its leaders. FN was placed on the political scene with the goal at the local level to broaden their contacts on concrete campaigns against immigration, abortion, crime, and to hold together the conservative right-wing traditionalists.
In March 1999, Morsello returned to Italy, with Fiore doing the same in April 2000. They were welcomed at the airport by deputies of the National Alliance and Forza Italia. After a trial, Fiore was sentenced to 66 months in prison while Morsello was sentenced to 98. However, he failed to serve this sentence as he was dying from cancer (he died in March 2001).
For the 2018 general election New Force Joined with Tricolour Flame to form the 'Italy to the Italians' coalition.
A fountain represents the life force, rejuvenation or immortality. It is also a symbol of the cosmic centre. Christianity and Islamic tradition place a fountain or spring at the centre of paradise at the foot of the Tree of Life from which streams flow to the four cardinal points.
A fountain is a piece of architecture which pours water into a basin or jets it into the air to supply drinking water and/or for a decorative or dramatic effect. In addition to providing drinking water, fountains were used for decoration and to celebrate their builders. Roman fountains were decorated with bronze or stone masks of animals or heroes. In the Middle Ages, Moorish and Muslim garden designers used fountains to create miniature versions of the gardens of paradise.
King Louis XIV of France used fountains in the Gardens of Versailles to illustrate his power over nature. The baroque decorative fountains of Rome in the 17th and 18th centuries CE marked the arrival point of restored Roman aqueducts and glorified the Popes who built them.
The fountain’s ‘pure river of water’ (Revelation 22:1) was equated with the Father and Son resulting in the fountain becoming a symbol not only of purity but of revelation and redemption.
The four-leaf clover is a rare variation of the common three-leaf clover, or Shamrock. According to traditional superstition, such clovers bring good luck, although it is not clear when, where or how that superstition originated. The earliest mention of "Fower-leafed or purple grasse" is from 1640 and simply says that it was kept in gardens because it was "good for the purples (cyanosis) in children or others". A description from 1869 says that four-leaf clovers were "gathered at night-time during the full moon by sorceresses, who mixed them with vervain (a herb that goes by quite a few other common names including Simpler's Joy, Enchanter's Plant, Herb of the Cross, Juno's Tears, Pigeon's Grass, Pigeonweed, Herb of Grace, Wild Hyssop, Iron-weed, Wild Verbena, and Indian Hyssop) and other ingredients, while young girls in search of a token of perfect happiness made quest of the plant by day". The first reference to luck might be from an 11-year-old girl, who wrote in an 1877 letter to St Nicholas Magazine, "Did the fairies ever whisper in your ear, that a four-leaf clover brought good luck to the finder?"
It is claimed that there are approximately 10,000 three-leaf clovers for every four-leaf clover. However, an actual survey of over 5 million clovers found the real frequency to be closer to 5,000 to 1. Even so, this probability has not deterred collectors who have reached records as high as 170,000 four-leaf clovers in a lifetime.
Clovers can have more than four leaves. Five-leaf clovers are less commonly found naturally than four-leaf clovers; however, they, too, have been successfully cultivated. Some four-leaf clover collectors, particularly in Ireland, regard the five-leaf clover, known as a rose clover, as a particular prize. In exceptionally rare cases, clovers are able to grow with six leaves and more in nature. The most leaves ever found on a single clover stem is 56, discovered by Shigeo Obara of Hanamaki City, Iwate, Japan, on 10 May 2009.
|Fraternitas Rosae Crucis (FRC)||
Fraternitas Rosae Crucis (Fraternity of the Rosy Cross or FRC) is a Rosicrucian fraternal organisation founded by Paschal Beverly Randolph (1825 - 1875) in 1858 CE; it is the oldest Rosicrucian Order in the United States of America. The organisation also operates Beverly Hall corporation and the Clymer Health Centre in nearby Quakertown, Pennsylvania. It claims to be the 'authentic Rosicrucian Fraternity' that was first instituted in Germany in 1614.
The FRC's first lodge was established in San Francisco in 1861, but it closed soon after. In 1871, another lodge was established in Boston, then in 1874, it was re-established in San Francisco. A year later, in 1875 the FRC finally settled in Philadelphia.
Fraternitas Saturni (Brotherhood of Saturn) is a German magical order, founded in 1926 CE by Eugen Grosche (1888 - 1964) -- also known as Gregor A Gregorius -- and four others. It is reputed to be one of the oldest continuously running magical groups in Germany. As Gregorius states, "The Lodge is concerned with the study of esotericism, mysticism, and magic in the cosmic sense."
Today, its purpose is in working on the spiritual evolution of humanity by means of development and advancement of the individual being. This is to be attained by mental and ethical schooling of the personality and complete mastery of esotericism and occultism. The organisation adopts a system of degrees, ending with the 33rd (similar to Freemasonry). The lodge further claims it has no political or economic objectives, and propagates ideals of freedom, tolerance and fraternity.
|Fraternity of the Inner Light||See Society of the Inner Light.|
|Freedom Party of Austriat||See Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs (FPÖ).|
The Order of the Free and Accepted Masons is one of the largest global secret fraternal societies, originally stemming from mediaeval stone-crafter guilds, and claiming descent from the builders of King Solomon's Temple. It was founded on the notion that the architecture of a church (typically King Solomon's Temple) is a metaphor for the architecture of the soul and man's relationship with God.
Freemasonry is a fraternal organisation whose individual members are united by shared ideals of both a moral and metaphysical nature and, in most of its branches, by a constitutional declaration of a belief in a Supreme Being. Organisationally, Freemasonry is governed on a geographical basis by independent, Sovereign Grand Lodges and Grand Orients which may, or may not be in a state of mutual recognition.
Freemasonry is also an esoteric society in that certain aspects of its internal work are not generally disclosed to the public. However, in recent years Freemasons have stated that Freemasonry has become less of a secret society and more of a society with secrets, claiming that most of the secrets of Freemasonry were revealed and have been known to the public since as early as the 18th century CE. For this and other reasons, most modern Freemasons regard the traditional concern over secrecy as a demonstration of their ability to keep a promise and as a substitute for the organisation's concern over the privacy of their own affairs. The private aspects of Freemasonry deal with elements of ritual and the modes of recognition amongst members within the ritual.
Some say the Freemasons were established in Scotland after several members of the Knights Templar fled there following its disbandment by Pope Clement V.
|Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs (FPÖ)||
The Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs (FPÖ) -- Freedom Party of Austria -- is a right-wing populist and national-conservative political party in Austria. Led by Heinz-Christian Strache (born 1969), the FPÖ is a member of the Europe of Nations and Freedom group in the European Parliament, as well as of the Movement for a Europe of Nations and Freedom.
The party was founded in 1956 as the successor to the short-lived Federation of Independents (VdU). Its first leader was Anton Reinthaller (1895 - 1958), a former Nazi functionary and SS officer. It was admitted to the Liberal International (LI) in 1979 and participated in a government led by the Social Democratic Party (SPÖ), following the 1983 legislative election. When Jörg Haider (1950 - 2008) was chosen as the new FPÖ leader in 1986, the party started an ideological turn towards right-wing populism. This new political course soon resulted in a strong surge in electoral support, although it also led the SPÖ to break ties. In 1993, after a controversial proposal on immigration issues, the adherents of a position closer to classical liberalism broke away from the FPÖ and formed the Liberal Forum (LiF), which took over the FPÖ's membership in the LI.
In the 1999 legislative election the FPÖ came second winning 26.9% of the vote, its best-ever result in a nationwide election, and for the first time coming ahead of the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) by a small margin. Despite this, the ÖVP led the following coalition government with the FPÖ, formed in 2000. The FPÖ soon became uncomfortable with governing and fell sharply in the 2002 legislative election, in which it obtained only 10% of the vote; nevertheless, the two parties agreed to continue their coalition. In 2005 increasing internal disagreements in the FPÖ led Haider and several leading members (including all the party's ministers) to defect and form the Alliance for the Future of Austria (BZÖ), which replaced the FPÖ as government partner.
In the nationwide 2017 legislative snap elections the FPÖ hoped to govern as the strongest party and fill in the position of chancellor. Unfortunately, they gained only 26% of the vote, which meant a narrow third place, and entered government as a junior partner of the winner ÖVP with its chancellor Sebastian Kurz (born 1986).
Among other things, the party supports the unification of South Tyrol (part of Italy) with Tyrol (Austria).
The Front National (FN) is a French right-wing populist and nationalist political party. Most political commentators place the FN on the far-right but other sources suggest that the party's position on the political spectrum has become more difficult to define clearly. Owing to the French electoral system, the party's representation in public office has been limited despite its significant share of the vote.
Its major policies include opposition to French membership of the European Union, the Schengen Area and the Eurozone, economic protectionism, a zero-tolerance approach to law and order issues, and opposition to free migration. As an anti-European Union party, the FN has opposed the European Union since its creation.
The party was founded in 1972 to unify a variety of French nationalist movements of the time. Jean-Marie Le Pen was the party's first leader and the undisputed hub of the party from its start until his resignation in 2011. While the party struggled as a marginal force for its first ten years, since 1984 it has been the major force of French nationalism.
The 2002 presidential election was the first in France to include a FN candidate in the run-off after Jean-Marie Le Pen beat the Socialist candidate in the first round. In the run-off, he finished a distant second to Jacques Chirac. Marine Le Pen, Jean-Marie's daughter, was elected to succeed him in 2011. In April 2017 she temporarily stepped down to concentrate on being the presidential candidate and to unite voters.
At the party congress on 11 March 2018, Marine Le Pen proposed renaming the party to Rassemblement national (National Rally), pending approval by a vote of party members.
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