DICTIONARY - O
An obelisk is a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape or ‘pyramidion’ at its apex -- it is a symbol of the Egyptian sun god Ra and during the brief religious reformation of Akhenaten was said to be a petrified ray of the sun disk. It was also thought that Ra existed within the structure.
Obelisks were originally called 'tekhenu' by the ancient Egyptians who built them and placed them in pairs at the entrance of temples. The Greeks who saw them used the Greek term 'obeliskos' to describe them -- this word passed into Latin and ultimately English.
Ancient obelisks are monolithic; that is, they consist of a single stone, whereas most modern obelisks are made of several stones, and some, like the Washington Monument, are buildings.
Rome is probably the obelisk capital of the world. The most well-known is the 25 metres tall obelisk at Saint Peter's Square in the city. It had stood since AD 37 on its site on the wall of the Circus of Nero, flanking St Peter's Basilica.
Obraz is a Serbian far-right organisation, officially banned by the Constitutional Court of Serbia in June 2012 CE because of its violent activities and anti-human rights ideology. While swearing allegiance to the Serbian nation and to the Serbian Orthodox religion, Obraz is committed to a struggle against those groups which it views as enemies of the Serbian people, e.g. Zionists, converts to Islam, perverts, ethnic minorities, criminals and drug addicts.
The leader of the organisation, Mladen Obradovic (born 1980), was accused of calling for the lynching of the LGBT population in Serbia during 2009 and 2010. He was convicted and sentenced to 10 months imprisonment for LGBT ‘bashing’ at the pride parade in 2009, and to 2 years for the same crime at the 2010 parade.
|Oculists||See High Enlightened Oculist Order.|
|Odin's Cross||See Solar Cross.|
The Triple Horn of Odin is a stylised emblem of the Norse god Odin. The symbol comprises three interlocked drinking horns, and is commonly worn or displayed as a sign of commitment to the modern Asatru faith.
The horns figure significantly in mythological stories of Odin and are recalled in traditional Norse toasting rituals. Most stories involve the god's quest for the Odhroerir, a magical mead brewed from the blood of the wise god Kvasir. As to be expected the tales vary, but typically Odin uses his wits and magic to procure the brew over three days; the three horns reflect the three draughts of the magical mead.
|Ogou / Ogoun||See Veves.|
|Oil of Abramelin||
In magic, a magical weapon is any instrument used to bring about intentional change. In practice, magical weapons are usually specific, consecrated items used within ceremonial ritual. There is no hard and fast rule as to what constitutes or does not constitute a magical weapon -- if a magician considers it to be a weapon, then a weapon it is.
However, there does exist a set of magical weapons with particular uses and symbolic meanings. Some such common weapons/tools include the Dagger/Sword, Wand/Baton, Cup/Chalice, Paten/Pentacle/Disc, Holy Oil, Lamp and Bell.
Oil of Abramelin is a ceremonial, magical oil used for just this purpose, i.e. a Holy Oil. It is blended according to the recipe found in SL Mathers' translation of The Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage, consisting of one-part myrrh, two-parts cinnamon, a half-part galangal (a root with a hot ginger/pepper taste used primarily as a seasoning in Thai cooking), and half the total weight of the best olive oil.
Om is a sacred sound and a spiritual icon in Hindu religion. It is also a mantra in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. It is part of the iconography found in ancient and mediaeval era manuscripts, temples, monasteries and spiritual retreats in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. The symbol has a spiritual meaning in all Indian Dharmas, but the meaning and connotations of Om vary between the diverse schools within and across the various traditions.
In Hinduism, Om is one of the most important spiritual symbols, referring to Atman (soul, self within) and Brahman (ultimate reality, entirety of the universe, truth, divine, supreme spirit, cosmic principles, knowledge). The syllable is often found at the beginning and the end of chapters in the Vedas, the Upanishads, and other Hindu texts. It is a sacred spiritual incantation made before and during the recitation of spiritual texts, during puja and private prayers, in ceremonies of rites of passages (sanskara) such as weddings, and sometimes during meditative and spiritual activities such as Yoga. In Tibetan Buddhism, probably the most famous use of Om is in the mantra Om Mani Padme Hum.
Opus Dei, originally known as 'The Prelature of the Holy Cross and Opus Dei' is an institution of the Roman Catholic Church which teaches that everyone is called to holiness and that life is a path to sanctity. Opus Dei is Latin for ‘Work of God’; which explains why the organisation is often referred to by its members (lay people, with secular priests under the governance of a prelate elected by specific members and appointed by the Pope) and supporters as the ‘Work’.
Opus Dei was founded in Spain in 1928 CE by the Catholic priest -- now a saint -- Josemaría Escrivá (1902 - 1975 CE) and was given the Catholic Church’s approval in 1950 by Pope Pius XII (1876 - 1958).
Approximately 70% of Opus Dei members live in private homes and lead traditional Catholic family lives with normal careers, while the other 30% are celibate, the majority of whom live in Opus Dei centres. Other than personal charity and social work, Opus Dei members organise training in Catholic spirituality applied to daily life, and members are involved in running universities, schools, publishing houses and hospitals, along with technical and agricultural training centres.
|Order of Bards, Ovates & Druids (OBOD)||
The Order of Bards, Ovates & Druids or OBOD is a Neo-Druidic organisation based in England, but created in part on the Welsh Gorsedd of Bards -- ovates are members of an order of Welsh bards recognised at an Eisteddfod. It has grown to become a dynamic druid organisation, with members in all parts of the world. OBOD was founded in 1964 as a split from the Ancient Order of Druids with Ross Nichols (1902 - 1975) as its leader.
In 1988, more than a decade after Nichols' passing, Philip Carr-Gomm (born 1952) was asked to lead the Order. Other notable members also hold somewhat senior positions in the order, often with the title of ‘Honorary Bard’, a good example of this being ‘Damh the Bard’ who is mostly involved in the UK groves and running the podcast.
The concept of the three roles of bards, ovates and druids originates from the writings of the ancient Greek historian and geographer Strabo (64 or 63 BCE – c. 24 CE), who in his Geographica stated that amongst the Gauls, there were three types of honoured figures: the poets and singers known as bardoi, the diviners and specialists in the natural world known as o'vateis, and those who studied ‘moral philosophy’, the druidai. Strabo's accuracy has been called into question here, as he was not well acquainted with Gaul and was likely relying on earlier sources whose accuracy is also disputed.
See also Arwen.
|Order of Nine Angles||
The Order of Nine Angles (ONA) is a supposedly secretive Satanist organisation which has been mentioned in books detailing Satanist and extreme right-wing groups. The ONA was originally founded in England in the 1960s CE with the merger of three Neopagan temples called Camlad, The Noctulians, and Temple of the Sun, which rose to public note during the 1980s and 1990s. Since then it has 'gone back to being totally underground, having completed its mission to spread its work'.
It is alleged that David Myatt (born 1950) took over the order and began writing its now publicly available teachings. Many writers claim that Anton Long wrote those tracts, and that David Myatt, who was involved with the neo-Nazi movement in England and now also known as Abdul-Aziz ibn Myatt, is a pseudonym of Anton Long.
The ONA claims that Satanism is a highly individualised quest that aims to create self-excellence and wisdom by undertaking challenges which allow a person to transcend his physical and mental limits. It is meant to involve the arduous achievement of self-mastery and 'Nietzschean self-overcoming', with an emphasis on individual growth through practical acts of risk, prowess and endurance. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844 - 1900) was a German philosopher whose writings included criticisms of religion and morality.
Rites of passage are often connected to promotion in grade level, and include spending three months living rough in a forest, deprived of any human contact, and the assumption of arduous occupations to develop personality and leadership ability. This is intended to aid in the evolution of the individual: "this new individual will be fierce, free, exult in exploration and discovery and possess an essentially Pagan attitude to life. This, in turn, will lead to the transformation of society into a higher, refined civilisation."
The ONA's writings condone and encourage human sacrifice as a means of eliminating the weak. Anton Long describes it as, "a contribution to improving the human stock, removing the worthless, the weak, the diseased (in terms of character)." This 'culling' serves not just a Darwinian purpose, but is also connected to the promotion of a new Aeon: "The change that is necessary means that there must be a culling, or many cullings, which remove the worthless and those detrimental to further evolution. Thus, true Satanism requires venturing into the realm of the forbidden and illegal, in order to make contact with the sphere of acausal, sinister forces of the cosmos."
Probably because of the ONA's highly radical stance, there is open animosity between the ONA and what could be described as 'mainstream' Satanists such as the Church of Satan. The ONA publicly disavows any connection with the Church of Satan, viewing it with contempt and claiming the Satanic Bible to be a 'watered-down philosophy', and shuns the religious type of approach evident in groups such as the Temple of Set which denounced the ONA in the early 1980s for its avowal of human sacrifice.
The ONA now has associates, and groups, in the United States, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and Russia.
|Order of the Eastern Star||
The Order of the Eastern Star was established in 1850 CE by lawyer and educator Rob Morris, a noted Freemason. It was adopted and approved as an appendant body of the Masonic Fraternity in 1873. Although the order is based on teachings from the Bible, it is open to people of all religious beliefs. It has approximately 10,000 chapters in twenty countries and in the region of 500,000 members under its General Grand Chapter.
Members of the Order of the Eastern Star must be aged 18 and older; men must be Master Masons while women must have specific relationships with Masons. Originally, a woman would have to be the daughter, widow, wife, sister, or mother of a master Mason, but the Order now allows other relatives. It also allows Job's Daughters, Rainbow Girls, Members of the Organisation of Triangles (NY only) and members of the Constellation of Junior Stars (NY only) to become members when of age.
The General Grand Chapter headquarters, the International Temple, is located in the Dupont Circle neighbourhood of Washington, D.C., in the Perry Belmont Mansion. The Order has a charitable foundation and from 1986 - 2001 contributed $513,147 to Alzheimer's disease research, juvenile diabetes research, and juvenile asthma research. It also provides bursaries to students of theology and religious music, as well as other scholarships that differ by jurisdiction.
|Order of the Garter||
The Most Noble Order of the Garter is an order of chivalry founded by King Edward III (1312 - 1377) in 1348 CE and is regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (although in precedence it is inferior to the Victoria Cross and George Cross) in England and the United Kingdom. It is dedicated to the image and arms of Saint George, England's patron saint.
Appointments to the Order are made at the Sovereign's sole discretion, although membership is limited to the Sovereign, the Prince of Wales, and no more than 24 members, or Companions. The Order also includes supernumerary knights and ladies (e.g., members of the British Royal Family and foreign monarchs). New appointments to the Order of the Garter are always announced on St George's Day (23 April), as Saint George is the Order's patron saint.
|Order of the Golden & Rosy Cross||
The Order of the Golden and Rosy Cross (Orden des Gold und Rosenkreutz) was a German Rosicrucian organisation founded in the 1750s CE by Freemason and Alchemist Hermann Fichtuld (c. 1700 - 1777). Candidates were expected to be Master Masons in good standing, with alchemy being a central study for members. Much of the hierarchical structure for this order was used by Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (SRIA) and from there, the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (G.D.).
Although the fraternity was founded in the 1750s, it is uncertain as to when it actually came into existence. Many documents and books mention it from the 18th century. For instance, Frater UD1 believes that in 1710, the idea for the order was born with the publication of Sigmund Richter's (using the name Sincerus Renatus) 'The perfect and true preparation of the Philosophers Stone according to the secret of the Brotherhoods of the Golden and Rosy Cross'. By the 1770s, the order had centres in Berlin, Hamburg, Frankfurt, Regensburg, Munich, Vienna, Prague, Poland, Hungary, and Russia.
The most influential member of the Order was Prince Frederick-William, a future King of Prussia, but the order was to slowly decline after his death.
|Ordo Astrum Sophiae||
Founded in 2002 CE, the Astrum Sophiae (House of the Winged Serpent) is a fully contacted initiatory Order dedicated to continuing and fostering the Ogdoadic Tradition of the Western Mysteries, and thus providing a vehicle for the advancement of its members in an ambience of living Alchemy. It is a private esoteric society and is thus not affiliated to any other organisation, whether esoteric, religious or political -- membership is by invitation only, and those members must proceed through the traditional grade structure.
It is a Hermetic and magical Order which derives its Charter of Succession and initiatory lineage from the Ordo Aurum Solis (Order of the Gold of the Sun), founded in London in 1897 by George Stanton and Charles Kingold. As a chartered and contacted Order, by authority of the Grand Master, it is empowered to transmit the First, Second and Third Hall initiations and to revise or authorise new rites that function within the contexts of our Tradition.
The Astrum Sophiae is a non-commercial magical Order in which no individual is allowed to make any profit by virtue of being a member or leader. The Order does not charge dues or fees for membership, but Commanderies or Citadels may exact modest dues on a local level if deemed appropriate.
See also Ordo Aurum Solis.
|Ordo Aurum Solis||
Ordo Aurum Solis (Order of the Gold of the Sun) is a Hermetic and Theurgic order founded in England in 1897 CE by George Stanton and Charles Kingold as a vehicle of the Ogdoadic Tradition, itself an important element of the Western Mystery Tradition.
Ordo Aurum Solis is best known through the published works of two of its past Grand Masters, Vivian Godfrey and Leon Barcynski. Better known by their pseudonyms, Melita Denning and Osborne Phillips, this husband and wife team together authored many books (some reappearing in newer editions) that cover different aspects of magical practice, such as the Llewellyn Practical Guide to Astral Projection and Llewellyn Practical Guide to Creative Visualisation, as well as their seminal work outlining the philosophy and practices of Ordo Aurum Solis.
Despite some similarities to the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (G.D.), some of its descendants, various Thelemic orders, and other groups stemming from the Rosicrucian revival of the 19th century, Ordo Aurum Solis represents a distinct and unique system of magical philosophy and practice based on the Ogdoadic Tradition
|Ordo Draconis et Atri Adamantis||See Dragon Rouge.|
|Ordo Templi Orientis (O.T.O.)||
Ordo Templi Orientis (O.T.O.) translates into 'Order of the Temple of the East', or the 'Order of Oriental Templars'. It is an international fraternal and religious organisation, and was the first such organisation to accept the Law of Thelema, expressed as 'Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law'. Thelemites believe this Law was established when Aleister Crowley (1875 - 1947) received the Book of the Law in Cairo in 1904 CE.
Its central rite, which is in the public domain, is called Liber XV, or the Gnostic Mass. The O.T.O. includes the Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica or Gnostic Catholic Church, the ecclesiastical arm of the Order, and claims to have in excess of 3000 members scattered throughout 58 countries, with approximately 50% of these being in the USA.
Initiates graduate through a degree system, similar to that of Freemasonry. There are 13 numbered degrees and 12 un-numbered. These are further divided into three grades or 'triads': the Hermit, the Lover, and the Man of Earth. Admittance to each degree involves an initiation and the swearing of an oath similar to those used in Freemasonry. The ultimate goal of initiation is to instruct the individual by allegory and symbol in the profound mysteries of Nature, and thereby to assist each to discover his or her own true Identity.
O.T.O. was described by Crowley as 'the first of the great Old Aeon orders to accept The Book of the Law'. The O.T.O. originally begged, stole and borrowed its material from European and irregular U.S. Masonic organisations. However, while some Masonic symbolism and language is still in use, their context is no longer that of Freemasonry, but of Thelema and its tenets. The Order offers esoteric instruction by means of dramatic ritual, guidance in a system of illuminated ethics, and fellowship amongst its aspirants to the Great Work -- realising the divine in the human.
The O.T.O. has two distinct areas of ritual activity: firstly, initiation into the Mysteries; and secondly, the celebration of Liber XV. It organises lectures, classes, social events, theatrical productions and artistic exhibitions. It also publishes books and journals as well as providing instruction in Hermetic science, Yoga, and magic.
|Ordre du Temple Solaire (OTS)||
The Ordre du Temple Solaire (OTS) -- Order of the Solar Temple, is a secret society and cult which claims to be based upon the ideals of the Knights Templar. OTS was started by Joseph Di Mambro (1924 - 1994) and Luc Jouret (1947 - 1994) in 1984 CE in Geneva as l'Ordre International Chevaleresque de Tradition Solaire (OICTS) and later renamed Ordre du Temple Solaire. Some historians allege that the Solar Temple originated with French author Jacques Breyer (1922 - 1996), who established a Sovereign Order of the Solar Temple in 1952.
The OTS is perhaps most notorious for being associated with a series of murders and mass suicides in 1994 and 1995 that claimed several dozen lives in France, Switzerland and Canada. In October 1994, Tony Dutoit, his wife Nicky, and their infant son (Emmanuel), aged three months, were killed at the group's centre in Morin-Heights, Quebec. The baby had been stabbed repeatedly with a wooden stake. It is believed that Di Mambro ordered the murder because he identified the baby as the Antichrist described in the Bible. He believed that the Antichrist was born into the order to prevent Di Mambro from succeeding in his spiritual aim.
A few days later, Di Mambro and twelve followers performed a ritual Last Supper. A few days after that, apparent mass suicides and murders were conducted at Cheiry and Salvan, two villages in Western Switzerland, and at Morin Heights. Fifteen inner circle members committed suicide with poison, 30 were killed by bullets or smothering, and 8 others were killed by other causes. In Switzerland, many of the victims were found in a secret underground chapel lined with mirrors and other items of Templar symbolism. The bodies were dressed in the order's ceremonial robes and were in a circle, feet together, heads outward, most with plastic bags tied over their heads; they had each been shot in the head. It is thought that the plastic bags were a symbol of the ecological disaster that would befall the human race after the OTS members moved on to Sirius.
|Ordre Reaux Croix (ORC)||
Many magical societies can trace their origin back to Freemasonry, but Martinism was one of the most prominent to break away from it. Ordre Reaux Croix (ORC) is a Martinist order established on the 250th anniversary of the founding of the Elus-Cohens2 of Martinez de Pasqually (1727 - 1774), in 2002. The ORC is an international Order with its Grand Lodge in Norway and jurisdictions in Sweden, United States, Canada, Argentina, Spain, Greece, and England. It combines the various schools and customs of Martinism into one order and organises their philosophies into three separate paths to spiritual enlightenment: the first is the Voie Cardiaque (Way of the Heart), which focuses on inner meditation and symbolic interpretation; the second is the Chevaliers Bienfaisantes de la Cite Sainte (the knightly arm of the order which focuses on enlightenment through selfless actions and chivalrous heraldry), the third is Elus Coen (the heirs of the original magic practiced by Pasqually, who dedicate themselves to learning spells that summon astral beings and bind demonic influences).
The teachings of the Order have their origin in the early esoteric Christianity, Hermeticism, Alchemy and western mysticism. It does not adhere to any exclusive religious confession, but insists on an absolute respect for all of humanity, and an individual quest for the sacred; the light of Truth that shines behind all religions.
2 The Elus-Cohens were founded by Martinez de Pasqually, who was Saint-Martin's teacher. The original Elus-Cohens ceased to exist sometime in the late 18th or early 19th century, but it was revived in the 20th century by Robert Ambelain (1907 - 1997), and lives on today in various Martinist Orders, including the branch re-instigated by Ambelain himself.
Ormgudinna (Lady of the Beasts) Stone. The Mistress of Animals, to which she is sometimes referred, is a 4th century CE stone carving of an unknown Norse goddess. She usually appears with serpents in each hand, which possibly links her to the ancient Babylonian goddess Ishtar, or to the Cretan bee goddess.
She is probably a creatrix as she is posed in a birthing position with a Triskele (a complex ancient Celtic symbol) above her head. It comprises the three animals emblematic of the Celtic domains of existence: the boar, representing the Earth; the snake, an emblem of Water; the bird, representing the sky.
The Orphic Egg within the Ancient Greek Orphic tradition is the Cosmic Egg from which hatched the primordial hermaphroditic deity Phanes who in turn created the other gods. The egg is often depicted with a serpent wound around it.
Phanes (variously equated also with Zeus, Pan, Metis, Eros, Erikepaios and Bromius) is the golden-winged primordial being who was hatched from the shining cosmic egg that was the source of the universe. Called 'Protogonos' (First-Born) and Eros (Love) -- being the seed of gods and men -- Phanes means 'Manifestor' or 'Revealer', and is related to the Greek words 'light' and 'to shine forth' as well as the Latin 'Lucifer'.
Osiris is an Egyptian god, identified as the god of the afterlife, the Underworld, and the dead, but more appropriately as the god of transition, resurrection, and regeneration. He was classically depicted as a green-skinned deity with a pharaoh's beard, partially mummy-wrapped at the legs, wearing a distinctive crown with a large ostrich feather at either side, and holding a symbolic Crook & Flail.
At times, Osiris was thought to be the oldest son of Geb, though other sources state his father is the Sun god Ra and the sky goddess Nut, as well as being brother and husband of Isis, with Horus being considered his posthumously begotten son. As ruler of the dead, Osiris was sometimes called the 'King of the Living' -- ancient Egyptians considered the blessed dead 'the living ones'.
Osiris was the brother of Isis, Set, Nephthys, and Horus the Elder, and father of Horus the Younger. Osiris is first attested in the middle of the 5th dynasty of Egypt, although it is likely that he was worshipped much earlier; the Khenti-Amentiu epithet dates to at least the first dynasty. Osiris was considered to be not only a merciful judge of the dead in the afterlife, but also the Underworld agency that granted all life, including sprouting vegetation and the fertile flooding of the River Nile.
He was described as the 'Lord of love', 'He Who is Permanently Benign and Youthful' and the 'Lord of Silence'. The Kings of Egypt were associated with Osiris in death -- as Osiris rose from the dead they would, in union with him, inherit eternal life through a process of magic.
When the Ritual Magician Aleister Crowley (1875 - 1947 CE) received the Book of the Law from Aiwass in Cairo in 1904, it brought the 'Aeon of Osiris' to an end and ushered in the 'Aeon of Horus'.
Ouroboros is a Greek word which means tail swallower. The ouroboros is usually depicted in the form of a snake or serpent, circular in shape, swallowing its own tail. It originated in Egypt as a symbol of the Sun, representing the travels of the Sun disc, while in Gnosticism it was related to the solar god Abraxas, and signified eternity and the soul of the world.
The snake often depicts a symbol of resurrection as it appears to be continually reborn when shedding its skin. In Alchemy, it represents the spirit of Mercury -- the substance that permeates all matter -- and symbolises continuous renewal and rebirth, the cycle of life and death, and the harmony of all opposites.
A double Ouroboros (two creatures swallowing one another) in alchemy signifies volatility. Spiritually, it indicates the balance of the upper and lower natures. See also Jormungandr.
An emblem of sagacity, the owl had sinister symbolism in some ancient cultures, particularly China, where its predatory night flights and staring eyes and eerie cry linked it to death and occult powers. Similarly, among the Kikuyu of Kenya, it was believed that owls were harbingers of death. If one saw an owl or heard its hoot, someone was going to die. In general, owls are viewed as harbingers of bad luck, ill health, or death, a belief that is widespread even today.
However, in Mongolia the owl is regarded as a benign omen. For example, the great warlord Genghis Khan (c. 1162 - 1227) was supposedly hiding from enemies in a small coppice. An owl roosted in the tree above him, which caused his pursuers to think no man could be hidden there. In modern Japan, owls are regarded as lucky and are carried in the form of a talisman or charm.
The modern West generally associates owls with wisdom, a link which goes back at least as far as ancient Greece, where Athens, noted for art and scholarship, and Athena, Athens' patron goddess and the goddess of wisdom, had the owl as one of her symbols. Coins featuring Athena have been found showing an owl on the reverse. Marija Gimbutas (1921 - 1994) traces veneration of the owl as a goddess, among other birds, to the culture of Old Europe, long pre-dating Indo-European cultures.
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